Students have opportunities to practice what they are learning and given timely, specific, and actionable feedback based on their current performance in relation to the desired outcomes.
- Learning is a cycle that includes mistakes, multiple attempts, difficulties, and course corrections.
- Timely, specific, and varied feedback is a catalyst for growth.
- Productive practice and novel application of skills are essential for learning.
- Being "wrong" is expected, accepted, and used as a foundation for further learning.
Literature Supporting the Element
1. “We would argue that the things you do well were taught to you through a series of intentional actions. You probably
did not develop high levels of skills from simply being told how to complete tasks. Instead, you likely had models,
feedback, peer support, and lots of practice. Over time, you developed your expertise. You many even have learned
more when you had to share that expertise with others.”
—Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2014). Better Learning Through Structured Teaching: a Framework for the Gradual Release of
Responsibility (p. 2). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
2. “... When feedback provides explicit guidance that helps students adjust their learning, there is a greater impact on
achievement, students are more likely to take risks with their learning, and they are more likely to keep trying until they
succeed (Brookhart, 2008; Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Shute, 2008).”
—Dean, C. B., Hubbell, E.R., Pitler, H., & Stone, B. (2012). Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based
Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement (2nd ed). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
3. “Independent practice (including homework) is designed to give students meaningful opportunities to practice
concepts and skills they have learned. It should not be boring, meaningless repetition.”
—Johnson, J.F. Jr., Perez, L., & Uline, C. (2003). Teaching Practices from America’s Best Urban Schools: A Guide for
School and Classroom Leaders (p. 80). New York, NY: Routledge.
4. “...[W]hen giving feedback to students about their work, we cannot be afraid to be critical. We don’t have to tell them
they are doing great to encourage them. Often, we don’t have to evaluate their work at all…..As an alternative, being
solely descriptive about what we see is often the only feedback students need to go back to their desk and make
their work better….That student needs to see where the work meets expectations and where it needs to go next if it
is to be better.”
—Toshalis, E. (2015). Make Me!: Understanding and Engaging Student Resistance in School (p. 102). Cambridge,
MA: Harvard Education Press.
5. "Feedback isn’t ‘feedback’ unless it can truly feed something. Information delivered too late to be used isn’t helpful.
Make sure when you give feedback that there is time built in to actually use the information. Otherwise students will
quickly learn to ignore feedback.”
—Brookhart, S. M. (2017). How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students (2nd ed.) (p. 57). Alexandria, VA:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.