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Varied Process

Key Traits
  • Student groupings are flexible, varied, and intentionally matched to the activity and learner.
  • Time and structures support re-teaching and extension of learning as needed.
  • Resources and materials improve accessibility for a variety of learners.
  • Students use varied methods and supports to advance their learning.
  • Students learn new information in varied ways--inquiry/investigation, presentation, hands-on, etc.
Literature Supporting the Element
1. “A teacher who is differentiating understands a student’s needs to express humor, or work with a group, or have
additional teaching on a particular skill, or delve more deeply into a particular topic, or have guided help with a
reading passage—and the teacher responds actively and positively to that need. Differentiation is simply attending to
the learning needs of a particular student or small group of students rather than the more typical pattern of teaching
the class as though all individuals in it were basically alike.”
—Tomlinson, C., & Allan, S. (2000). Leadership for Differentiating Schools and Classrooms. Alexandria, VA:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
2. “The most important thing is to focus on keeping students academically engaged so that they are invested as
learners. Generally, this requires teachers to utilize strategies that are more interactive and more hands on. Most
students learn better by doing than by sitting and listening passively. Teachers who employ strategies that challenge
students to think and use their problem-solving abilities will be more successful in creating a learning environment
that pushes kids to excel. We must challenge kids and give them the opportunity to see how what they learn in
school can be applied in the real world. Cultural relevance is a really important part of this so it is imperative that we
utilize multicultural books and learning materials that will engage kids and motivate them to apply themselves.”
—Rea, D. W. (2015). Interview with Pedro Noguera: How to Help Students and Schools in Poverty. National YouthAt-Risk
Journal 1(1), 11-21.
3. “It is important to keep in mind that construction of knowledge is not the same as physical involvement with
manipulative materials. So-called hands-on learning may or may not be constructivist. Students can follow directions
as mindlessly when using physical objects as they can when completing a worksheet. In a constructivist approach,
students are cognitively engaged in what they are doing; the activities in other words, must be ‘minds-on.’ Although
in many situations physical involvement with real objects aids this process, physical involvement provides no
guarantee that students will be mentally engaged.”
—Danielson, C. (2007). Enhancing Professional Practice: A Framework for Teaching (2nd ed.) (p. 17). Alexandria, VA:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.